Are Iron Oxides Safe In Cosmetics?

Are Iron Oxides Safe In Cosmetics
Safety Information: – The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) lists Iron Oxides as a color additive exempt from certification. Iron Oxides are safe for use in coloring products, including cosmetics and personal care products applied to the lips, and the area of the eye, provided they meet certain specifications. ). The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) has deferred evaluation of this ingredient because the safety has been assessed by FDA. This deferral of review is according to the provisions of the CIR Procedures.

Are iron oxides toxic on the skin?

I-yon Ox-ides – Iron oxides are naturally occurring minerals known to be safe, gentle and non-toxic on the surface of the skin. One of the oldest tricks in the skincare book involves enhancing skin’s appearance with inorganic pigments, such as iron oxides, which typically come in shades of red, orange, brown and black.

  • With the right proportion of titanium oxide (which is white) and a little alchemy, formulators can create products that cover imperfections and provide an even skin tone for all.
  • You’ll often hear about iron oxides in makeup, especially eye shadows, blushers, powders, lipstick and mineral makeup.
  • Iron oxides are resistant to moisture, don’t easily bleed or smear and have “staying power” so only a little application is needed.

Iron oxides won’t irritate the skin and aren’t known to be allergenic, so sensitive skin types you can put your guard down.

What does iron oxide do to your skin?

Iron Oxides Are the Ultimate Skin Protectors—Derms Explain Why Iron oxides may not necessarily sound like an ingredient that you’d find in your skincare or makeup; in our mind, they sound more like something that belongs in a coal mine in West Virginia than on the shelves at Sephora.

But iron oxides actually are a very common component in cosmetics. Ahead, cosmetic chemist Autumn Blum and board-certified dermatologist, MD, explain more. Meet the Expert The primary purpose iron oxides serve is purely functional since they play an integral role in the formulation process. However, there’s also a secondary, more skincare-focused benefit that makes them one of those ‘get extra bang for your buck’ ingredients worth seeking out.

Iron Oxides

Type of ingredient: Mineral compound Main benefits: Iron oxides are most often used to add pigment to cosmetics and skincare, but they also have the added benefit of protecting the skin from visible and blue light says Mariwalla. Who should use it: These are safe and effective for all but can be especially beneficial for those with, a condition that’s exacerbated by visible light, explains Mariwalla. How often can you use it: Daily Works well with: Iron oxides tend to work well with all ingredients. Don’t use with: According to the experts we spoke with, there are no ingredients known to interact negatively with iron oxides.

Iron oxides are mineral-derived compounds comprised of iron and oxygen. Our coal mine vibes weren’t entirely inaccurate; there are several different types of iron oxides, the most commonly known one being rust, says Blum. Obviously, rust isn’t what’s being put into your skincare and makeup.

“Commercially, iron oxides are derived from occurring minerals and pigmented in a lab to control the quality,” she explains. “They’re often used to add color to cosmetics and skincare.” Iron oxides typically come in red, yellow, and black shades, and then have to be blended into the cosmetic or skincare products in order to create the desired color or tint, adds Mariwalla.

Per our previous point, iron oxides’ primary purpose is to give cosmetic products a particular color. But dermatologists are intrigued by this ingredient because iron oxides have also been shown to offer excellent protection against visible light, says Mariwalla.

Like UV light, visible light can also be damaging to the skin and, more specifically, it can also worsen conditions such as melasma, Mariwalla adds. In fact, one study found that sunscreen formulas containing iron oxides were more effective at preventing sun-induced pigmentation, especially in darker skin types.

In related news, “iron oxides have been shown to offer enhanced protection against the blue light emitted from our computer screens and electronic devices,” says Blum. A study published in The Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology confirmed this, more specifically finding that this benefit was even further enhanced when iron oxides were combined with zinc oxide, an often-used mineral ingredient.

  1. Point being, iron oxides offer protection against certain types and wavelengths of light that regular sunscreens do not.
  2. And when they’re used in sunscreens, they also have the added benefit of adding a nice tint that can make the product more cosmetically elegant and decrease the white cast that many mineral formulas can leave behind, says Mariwalla.

Plus, iron oxides also have reflective properties that help to even out skin tone and diffuse the appearance of imperfections, notes Blum. Yes, please. There really aren’t any to speak of. “Iron oxides are well-tolerated, even by people with sensitive skin,” says Blum.

  • The other upshot? Unlike some of the other pigments used in cosmetics which are animal-derived (carmine is one good example), iron oxides offer a nice vegan alternative for people, she points out.
  • Products with iron oxides can be used daily (and if they’re in a sunscreen, they definitely should be used daily).

And honestly, it’s very likely that they’re already found in some of the makeup you’re using on the regular. The only thing to keep in mind is that because iron oxides have a larger molecular structure, they can sometimes migrate or fall out of solutions, notes Blum.

  1. If you’re using a liquid or cream product—like a —”it’s always a good idea to shake the packaging before using to ensure the color is well-dispersed,” she advises.
  2. Byrdie takes every opportunity to use high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles.
  3. Read our to learn more about how we keep our content accurate, reliable and trustworthy.

: Iron Oxides Are the Ultimate Skin Protectors—Derms Explain Why

Is iron oxide absorbed through the skin?

Abstract – In this study, the effectiveness of washing with soap and water in removing nanoparticles from exposed skin was investigated. Dry, nanoscale hematite (α-Fe 2 O 3 ) or maghemite (γ-Fe 2 O 3 ) powder, with primary particle diameters between 20-30 nm, were applied to two samples each of fresh and frozen ex vivo human skin in two independent experiments.

The permeation of nanoparticles through skin, and the removal of nanoparticles after washing with soap and water were investigated. Bare iron oxide nanoparticles remained primarily on the surface of the skin, without penetrating beyond the stratum corneum. Skin exposed to iron oxide nanoparticles for 1 and 20 hr resulted in removal of 85% and 90%, respectively, of the original dose after washing.

In the event of dermal exposure to chemicals, removal is essential to avoid potential local irritation or permeation across skin. Although manufactured at an industrial scale and used extensively in laboratory experiments, limited data are available on the removal of engineered nanoparticles after skin contact.

Our finding raises questions about the potential consequences of nanoparticles remaining on the skin and whether alternative washing methods should be proposed. Further studies on skin decontamination beyond use of soap and water are needed to improve the understanding of the potential health consequences of dermal exposure to nanoparticles.

Keywords: Decontamination; flow-through diffusion cells; human skin absorption; nanoparticles; percutanous permeation.

Are iron oxide pigments safe?

THE MINERAL-BASED COLORANTS WE USE – Iron Oxides & Titanium Dioxide (CI 77491, CI 77492, CI 77499, 77891) Originating from natural minerals and ores, these mineral-based colorants are processed after extraction to prevent heavy metal contamination that may be present in their natural form.

Considered the most effective non-toxic cosmetic colorants available, these mineral pigments have no known adverse health effects. Iron oxides are also very gentle and non-irritating for those with sensitive skin. Every colorant (and ingredient) we use is of natural origin, with safety and purity as our most important consideration.

We do not use any animal-derived ingredients in our formulas (minus the honey in our Lash & Brow Enhancing Serum which we are in the process of replacing with a vegan alternative). Beautiful, transformative effects are 100% possible with only non-toxic, natural, vegan ingredients. Are Iron Oxides Safe In Cosmetics

Are iron oxides carcinogenic?

Furthermore, human epidemiological evidence from a number of studies suggests that iron oxide is not a human carcinogen, and therefore, based upon the complete weight of evidence, we conclude that ‘bulk’ iron oxides are not human carcinogens.

Can I add iron oxide to my sunscreen?

References –

  1. Pinnell, S.R., et al., Microfine zinc oxide is a superior sunscreen ingredient to microfine titanium dioxide. Dermatol Surg, 2000.26 (4): p.309-14.
  2. Lowe, N.J., An overview of ultraviolet radiation, sunscreens, and photo-induced dermatoses. Dermatol Clin, 2006.24 (1): p.9-17.
  3. American Academy of Dermatology. Sunscreen FAQs, April 30, 2019]; Available from:,
  4. Liebel, F., et al., Irradiation of skin with visible light induces reactive oxygen species and matrix-degrading enzymes. J Invest Dermatol, 2012.132 (7): p.1901-7.
  5. Randhawa, M., et al., Visible Light Induces Melanogenesis in Human Skin through a Photoadaptive Response. PLoS One, 2015.10 (6): p. e0130949.
  6. Mahmoud, B.H., et al., Impact of long-wavelength UVA and visible light on melanocompetent skin. J Invest Dermatol, 2010.130 (8): p.2092-7.
  7. Duteil, L., et al., Differences in visible light-induced pigmentation according to wavelengths: a clinical and histological study in comparison with UVB exposure. Pigment Cell Melanoma Res, 2014.27 (5): p.822-6.
  8. Regazzetti, C., et al., Melanocytes Sense Blue Light and Regulate Pigmentation through Opsin-3. J Invest Dermatol, 2018.138 (1): p.171-178.
  9. Heurung, A.R., S.I. Raju, and E.M. Warshaw, Adverse reactions to sunscreen agents: epidemiology, responsible irritants and allergens, clinical characteristics, and management. Dermatitis, 2014.25 (6): p.289-326.
  10. Cross, S.E., et al., Human skin penetration of sunscreen nanoparticles: in-vitro assessment of a novel micronized zinc oxide formulation. Skin Pharmacol Physiol, 2007.20 (3): p.148-54.
  11. Filipe, P., et al., Stratum corneum is an effective barrier to TiO2 and ZnO nanoparticle percutaneous absorption. Skin Pharmacol Physiol, 2009.22 (5): p.266-75.
  12. Kaye, E.T., et al., Efficiency of opaque photoprotective agents in the visible light range. Arch Dermatol, 1991.127 (3): p.351-5.
  13. Kullavanijaya, P. and H.W. Lim, Photoprotection. J Am Acad Dermatol, 2005.52 (6): p.937-58; quiz 959-62.
  14. Castanedo-Cazares, J.P., et al., Near-visible light and UV photoprotection in the treatment of melasma: a double-blind randomized trial. Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed, 2014.30 (1): p.35-42.
  15. Schalka, S., New data on hyperpigmentation disorders. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol, 2017.31 Suppl 5 : p.18-21.
  16. Boukari, F., et al., Prevention of melasma relapses with sunscreen combining protection against UV and short wavelengths of visible light: a prospective randomized comparative trial. J Am Acad Dermatol, 2015.72 (1): p.189-90 e1.

Does all makeup have iron oxides?

Iron Oxides Are the Skin-Protecting Ingredients Your Routine Has Been Waiting For. As skincare ingredients go, iron oxides may not sound, well, terribly sexy. These scientific-sounding ingredients—which can be both mineral or synthetic— are found in all kinds of beauty products, ranging from eyeshadow to sunscreen.

Do all tinted sunscreens have iron oxide?

Abstract – Ultraviolet radiation and visible light both have biologic effects on the skin. Visible light can induce erythema in light-skinned individuals and pigmentation in dark-skinned individuals. Broad-spectrum sunscreens protect against ultraviolet radiation but do not adequately protect against visible light.

  • For a sunscreen to protect against visible light, it must be visible on the skin.
  • Inorganic filters (also known as mineral filters), namely, zinc oxide and titanium dioxide, are used in the form of nanoparticles in sunscreens to minimize the chalky and white appearance on the skin; as such, they do not protect against visible light.
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Tinted sunscreens use different formulations and concentrations of iron oxides and pigmentary titanium dioxide to provide protection against visible light. Many shades of tinted sunscreens are available by combining different amounts of iron oxides and pigmentary titanium dioxide to cater to all skin phototypes.

Therefore, tinted sunscreens are beneficial for patients with visible light-induced photodermatoses and those with hyperpigmentation disorders such as melasma and postinflammatory hyperpigmentation. Keywords: iron oxide; photoprotection; tinted sunscreen; titanium dioxide; ultraviolet light; visible light.

Copyright © 2020 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Is iron oxide safe for pregnancy?

1. Introduction – Over the past few decades, interest, design, and implementation of engineered nanomaterials have grown exponentially, and the resulting influx of nanomaterial-containing products has greatly increased human exposure, Engineered nanomaterials are defined as intentionally produced materials with at least one dimension ranging from 1 to 100 nm,

Nanomaterials, including nanoparticles (NPs), exhibit physical and chemical properties unique from larger materials with the same chemical composition, due primarily to their small size and high surface to volume ratios, Due to these unique properties, NPs are now routinely employed in many fields including industrial applications (e.g., pigments, catalysts, and solar cells), biomedical applications (e.g., drug delivery and diagnostics), and consumer products (e.g., sunscreens, paints, and food packaging),

Magnetic NPs are of particular interest to the field of biomedicine due in part to their ability to be manipulated using a magnetic field and directed to a particular tissue of interest, as well as for their use as a contrast agent in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (Valdiglesias et al.),

Magnetic NPs with an iron oxide core have been investigated for many biomedical applications such as drug delivery and are currently clinically approved to treat anemia induced by chronic kidney disease (Gupta ), Biomedical investigations have even led to the use of iron oxide NPs in several clinical trials,

In addition to use in biomedicine, iron oxide NPs are now routinely used in environmental remediation applications at more than 50 sites in the United States, resulting in a greater risk of human exposures, Iron oxide NPs are generally thought to be safe and “biocompatible,” primarily through the use of cell viability assays and the potential for NPs to utilize typical iron metabolic pathways, though the mechanisms are not well understood,

  1. Greater evaluation and understanding of the mechanisms of iron oxide nanotoxicity are required for the future design and implementation of iron oxide NPs resulting in human exposures.
  2. The basic properties of NPs, which make them appealing for many industrial, biomedical, and consumer applications, also present unique toxicological hazards,

The inherent small size of NPs enables greater absorption and potentially greater bioavailability than bulk materials. Greater bioavailability of NPs can be beneficial for biomedical uses, but may lead to enhanced toxicity (e.g., crossing the placenta).

Various studies have investigated both in vitro and in vivo toxicity of NPs. In vitro, NPs have demonstrated the ability to induce oxidative stress, damage DNA and mitochondria, and disrupt gene expression, while in vivo NPs have been shown to induce inflammation or suppress the immune response, Though little is known about the mechanisms of NP toxicity, various factors have been shown to influence observed toxicities, such as core material, size, shape, surface functionalization, and surface charge,

Reported studies investigating the potential toxicity of NPs primarily focus either in vitro or in vivo on adult, healthy models, with little or no focus on susceptible populations such as pregnant women and the developing fetus. Pregnant women are particularly susceptible to exogenous stimuli including NPs, and the small size of the NPs negates the size-selectivity of the placental barrier, which protects the embryo from exogenous toxins,

Exposure to the developing fetus can be devastating due to inherent increased susceptibility to environmental toxins, In utero exposures can also lead to long-term developmental toxicity that may be observed later in life. For example, trans-placental transfer has been observed with titanium dioxide NPs leading to brain and nervous system damage as well as with carbon NPs resulting in reduced sperm production in male offspring,

Mice exposed to platinum NPs demonstrated potential long-term effects of gestational NP exposure. While there were no differences in fetal death or NP accumulation in the pups, decreased growth rates and pup mortality were significantly increased in those exposed to platinum NPs in utero,

Additional animal studies performed using several different metal NPs further illuminate the potential harmful effects of NP exposure during pregnancy (Li ). Though exposure to iron oxide NPs is generally believed to be safe, concerns remain about increased exposure to susceptible populations, such as pregnant women and the developing fetus,

Previous research by our lab has demonstrated the ability of 12 nm Fe 2 O 3 -NPs (hydrodynamic size ~28–30 nm with polymer coatings) to cross the placenta and accumulate in the fetal liver, Developmental toxicity (increased fetal resorptions and decreased maternal weight gain) was determined to be surface charge-dependent after multiple exposures to Fe 2 O 3 -NPs during pregnancy, with positively charged polyethyleneimine-coated NPs (PEI-NPs) displaying greater toxicity and presence in the fetal liver over negatively charged poly(acrylic acid)-coated NPs (PAA-NPs),

A study by Noori et al. examining the developmental toxicity of dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA)-coated Fe 3 O 4 -NPs, observed that a single in utero exposure to iron oxide NPs (≥100 mg/kg) on gestation day (GD) 8 led to a significant increase in pup mortality (~70%), a decrease in offspring weights, and a decrease in offspring testicular germ cells at postnatal day (PND) 50,

No effects were observed in either study with lower single doses of NPs (10 or 50 mg/kg, respectively) or with eight consecutive doses of 10 mg/kg/day, The experiments described herein were designed to further elucidate the influence of surface charge and dose on the developmental toxicity previously observed by our lab,

Experiments described herein were designed to determine whether a single, low or high dose of surface charged iron oxide NPs, given at a particular gestational period, will result in developmental toxicity, Animals were given a single low (10 mg/kg) or high (100 mg/kg) dose of NPs during a period of major organogenesis (GD 8, 9, or 10).

The influence of surface charge on toxicity was examined due to its previously observed effects on NP toxicity, where positively-charged NPs were observed to be more fetotoxic in one study, while increased offspring mortality and germ cell loss were observed with negatively-charged NPs in another,

  1. The results of this investigation provide more insights into the role of surface charge and dose on the short- and long-term developmental toxicity of iron oxide NPs, which may lead to the safer design of future engineered nanomaterials.
  2. No developmental toxicity was observed after a single, low (10 mg/kg) dose of either positively- or negatively-charged NPs.

However, a single, high dose (100 mg/kg) of either positively- or negatively-charged NPs resulted in short- and long-term developmental toxicity. Severity of the effects was dependent both on NP surface-charge and timing of exposure, with positively-charged NPs inducing greater toxicity later during organogenesis (GD 9 or 10) and negatively-charged NPs inducing more mild toxicity when exposed earlier during organogenesis (GD 8).

Is iron oxide a natural product?

Are Iron Oxides Safe? – As we have already mentioned, iron oxides are compounds that naturally occur in nature, which makes them 100% natural. However, the iron oxide that occurs naturally in an uncontrolled setting very often contains traces of heavy metals, such as mercury, arsenic, and cadmium,

These elements are undesirable in cosmetic products because they can be harmful to our health. This is why the iron oxides that are used in cosmetic formulas are mostly produced synthetically. The word ‘synthetic’ is usually associated with something bad, but in this case, the ingredient is produced in a lab for safety reasons.

The strictly controlled manufacturing conditions are necessary to avoid the inclusion of impurities that would otherwise occur in naturally produced iron oxides. Their basic composition remains the same i.e. what lab workers do is re-create the naturally occurring process of oxidation in a controlled environment, free of heavy metals and other potentially harmful ingredients.

  • Apart from that, after oxidation, synthetically produced iron oxides are purified, so they can be 100% free of irritants and any undesirable compounds.
  • What To Try: Organic BB Cream While iron oxide pigments in topical cosmetic products are unmatched in terms of durability and pigmentation, there is one tiny disadvantage of using them in products that are placed beneath the skin (permanent makeup or temporary tattoos).

When iron oxides are placed under the dermis, the iron is gradually absorbed by the blood vessels, which may cause the color to change and even fade away. Still, this is rather an aesthetic issue and poses no threat to human health. view now Age-Defence Organic Skincare Essentials view now Anti-Ageing Mineral Foundation SPF15 view now Age-Defence Organic Skincare Essentials view now Anti Dark-Circle Eye Gel

Is iron oxide a natural pigment?

Home Pigments Natural Iron Oxides and Hematites

Natural Iron Oxides are earth pigments which range from rich red-brown to dark red-violet and have a very high iron oxide content making them both high tinting and opaque. Modern Iron Oxides were invented to replace the natural ones but the unique qualities of the natural iron oxides cannot be matched.

  • Caput Mortuum and many Indian Reds are the names of colors assigned to natural iron oxides.
  • Hematite starts out as a heavy gray metallic ore.
  • Upon inspection you might even consider it to be a piece of metal.
  • After hundreds of years mother nature breaks it down into the pigment commonly known as Indian Red, Persian Red, or English Red.

Hematite can be found through out the world with large deposits in Spain and the Southwest of the United States. Caput Mortuum is Latin for “Dead Head” the color can range from a rich red-violet to a dark deep earthy purple. This is color is often underestimated and time after time will surprise many artists as to its beauty and usefulness.

Does the body need iron oxide?

Abstract – Iron oxide is an important biological agent that has a key role in medical processes; however, the mechanism whereby it provides iron for human and animal cells and its biological uses remains unclear. We aimed to evaluate the effects of oral iron oxide on serum iron status and compare the results with those of iron sulfate as a reference salt.

  • Fifteen adult rabbits were divided into 3 groups of 5 each: control group, iron sulfate group, and iron oxide group.
  • The groups received doses of 3.3, 10, and 33 mg/kg in 3 experiments.
  • Venous blood samples were obtained just before the oral administration of iron sulfate and iron oxide (3.3 mg/kg).
  • More blood samples were taken 3 times at the time points of 1, 6, and 12 hours after the administration of the solutions.

Serum was separated for the measurement of iron (Fe) and total iron-binding globulin (TIBG) with routine methods. One week later, the same experiment was repeated with 10 mg/kg of iron sulfate and iron oxide; and 1 week later after the second experiment, again the same experiment was repeated with 33 mg/kg of iron sulfate and iron oxide.

  • The results showed that 33 mg/kg of iron sulfate 1 hour after treatment caused a significant difference in the Fe and TIBG levels between all the groups (P=0.014 for Fe and P=0.027 for TIBG).
  • Our data showed that the absorption of iron oxide was similar to that of ferrous sulfate and in high doses was as useful as iron supplement.
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Keywords: Ferric oxide, Rabbit, Blood iron, Ferrous sulfate What’s Known

Iron oxide is an important biological agent that has a key role in medical processes and used as iron supplements.

What’s New

Although the role of iron oxide in medical processes is known, however, the mechanism of providing iron for biological usage was unclear. Our results clarified the effect of oral iron oxide on serum iron status and related parameters.

Is iron oxide organic?

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Iron(II) oxide

IUPAC name Iron(II) oxide
Other names Ferrous oxide,iron monoxide
CAS Number


3D model ( JSmol )

Interactive image





ECHA InfoCard 100.014.292
Gmelin Reference 13590
PubChem CID




CompTox Dashboard ( EPA )


Chemical formula FeO
Molar mass 71.844 g/mol
Appearance black crystals
Density 5.745 g/cm 3
Melting point 1,377 °C (2,511 °F; 1,650 K)
Boiling point 3,414 °C (6,177 °F; 3,687 K)
Solubility in water Insoluble
Solubility insoluble in alkali, alcohol dissolves in acid
Magnetic susceptibility (χ) +7200·10 −6 cm 3 /mol
Refractive index ( n D ) 2.23
Occupational safety and health (OHS/OSH):
Main hazards can be combustible under specific conditions
NFPA 704 (fire diamond) 1 1 0
Autoignition temperature 200 °C (392 °F; 473 K)
Safety data sheet (SDS) ICSC 0793
Related compounds
Other anions Iron(II) sulfide Iron(II) selenide Iron(II) telluride
Other cations Manganese(II) oxide Cobalt(II) oxide
Related Iron oxides Iron(II,III) oxide Iron(III) oxide
Related compounds Iron(II) fluoride
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa). verify ( what is ?) Infobox references

Iron(II) oxide or ferrous oxide is the inorganic compound with the formula FeO. Its mineral form is known as wüstite, One of several iron oxides, it is a black-colored powder that is sometimes confused with rust, the latter of which consists of hydrated iron(III) oxide (ferric oxide).

What is an alternative to iron oxide pigment?

Manganese ferrite pigment : Carbon black, iron oxide alternative.

What pigment can I use instead of iron oxide?

Red and Yellow Ochre – Natural Yellow Ochre (PY43) contains hydrated iron oxide, which gives the earth its golden yellow colour. Natural Red Ochre pigments (PR102) are derived from earths that contain high amounts of hematite, a blood-red mineral. Red and Yellow earths can be found all over the world, and Red and Yellow Ochre can be found in the earliest prehistoric cave paintings.

  1. Many paints labelled Red and Yellow Ochre are made using synthetic iron oxides, instead of naturally occurring iron oxides.
  2. These synthetic alternatives can be identified by the pigment index numbers PR101 (Red Ochre), and PY42 (Yellow Ochre).
  3. Below is a selection of synthetic red iron oxide pigments (PR101), and natural red iron oxide pigments (PR102).

It’s clear that synthetic iron oxides can imitate the many colour variations of natural earths.

How toxic is iron oxide?

* Exposure to Iron Oxide fumes can cause metal fume fever. This is a flu-like illness with symptoms of metallic taste, fever and chills, aches, chest tightness and cough. * While Iron Oxide has been tested, it is not classifiable as to its potential to cause cancer.

Does iron oxide contain lead?

Comparatively Speaking: Natural- vs. Mineral-based Colorants The trend for natural color cosmetics and personal care products in general is still popular, but there are differences between mineral and natural colorants, especially when it comes to color additives.

  1. The formulator needs to understand the difference and make informed decisions about the pigments they select for a or personal care products.
  2. One example is iron oxides, which are available in red, yellow, black and brown blends.
  3. These colorants are considered mineral by most people, as they essentially are derived from the oxidation of iron, with the different colors arising from the different oxidation states of the iron.

For cosmetic use in the United States, iron oxides must be synthetic according to the US Code of Federal Regulations Part 21 Section 73.2250, which clearly uses the term “synthetic.” In other words, natural iron oxides cannot be used as color additives for cosmetics and personal care products in the United States because it is much easier to control trace levels of heavy metals in a synthetically produced mineral than it is in a naturally mined mineral.

Many mineral-based color additives (those exempt from government certification) and other powder fillers must be assayed for heavy metal content, specifically lead, arsenic and mercury. They must fall within the guidelines set down by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). For iron oxides, the maximum levels for lead, arsenic and mercury are 10, 3, and 3 parts per million (ppm), respectively.

Some other ingredients only allow 1 ppm of mercury. Color additives with higher levels of any heavy metals are not considered cosmetically acceptable and cannot be used in cosmetic products. They can, however, be used in other industries such as paints and printing inks.

  • The use of iron oxides in other countries personal care markets is slightly different.
  • Iron oxides are controlled by the E172 regulation in the European Union.
  • Each cosmetic ingredient in the EU is assigned an “E” number.
  • This number designates its type, form and function as an for cosmetic use.
  • Even though the cosmetics industry uses that same synthetic iron oxides for all markets, natural iron oxides are permitted for use in cosmetics in the EU but they must be assayed for additional heavy metals in addition to the lead, arsenic and mercury.

The additional heavy metals with their maximum limits are cadmium (5 ppm), nickel (50 ppm), copper (50 ppm), barium (50 ppm), chromium (50 ppm) and zinc (100 ppm). In the United States, iron oxides are grouped and listed together on an, In international markets, they must be listed separately and identified by their Color Index numbers: red iron oxide (CI 77491), yellow iron oxide (CI 77492) and black iron oxide (CI 77499).

Therefore, the difference between the term mineral colorants and colorants is that even though iron oxides have traditionally been considered mineral-based color additives exempt from certification, in the United States, cosmetics and personal care products that contain iron oxides should really not be considered natural.

However, in the EU they can be considered natural if they contain the naturally derived color additives where they are permitted for use. : Comparatively Speaking: Natural- vs. Mineral-based Colorants

Are iron oxides eco friendly?

Abstract – Iron oxides (FeOx) are non-toxic, non-expensive and environmentally friendly compounds, which makes them good candidates for many industrial applications, among them catalysis. In the present article five catalysts based on FeOx were synthesized by mild routes: hydrothermal in subcritical and supercritical conditions (Fe-HT, Few200, Few450) and solvothermal (Fe-ST1 and Fe-ST2).

  1. The catalytic activity of these catalysts was studied for the total oxidation of toluene using very demanding conditions with high space velocities and including water and CO 2 in the feed.
  2. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (SEM and HRTEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms.

It was observed that the most active catalyst was a cavity-containing porous sample prepared by a solvothermal method with a relatively high surface area (55 m 2 g −1 ) and constituted by flower-like aggregates with open cavities at the catalyst surface.

  1. This catalyst displayed superior performance (100% of toluene conversion at 325 °C using highly demanding conditions) and this performance can be maintained for several catalytic cycles.
  2. Interestingly, the porous iron oxides present not only a higher catalytic activity than the non-porous but also a higher specific activity per surface area.

The high activity of this catalyst has been related to the possible synergistic effect of compositional, structural and microstructural features emphasizing the role of the surface area, the crystalline phase present, and the properties of the surface.

What ingredient should not be in sunscreen?

The science on ingredient toxicity – Oxybenzone The most worrisome sunscreen active ingredient is oxybenzone, according to publicly available scientific research. It is readily absorbed through the skin (Matta 2019, Matta 2020) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention found it in nearly all Americans, with higher levels in those who report applying sunscreen (Zamoiski 2016).

  1. Oxybenzone causes allergic skin reactions (Rodriguez 2006), behaves like an endocrine disruptor in many studies (Krause 2012, Ghazipura 2017) and is potentially of greater harm to children (FDA 2019).
  2. In an evaluation of CDC-collected exposure data for American children, researchers found that adolescent boys with higher oxybenzone measurements had significantly lower total testosterone levels (Scinicariello 2016).

Three other studies reported statistically significant associations between oxybenzone exposure during pregnancy and birth outcomes. One reported shorter pregnancy in women carrying male fetuses, two reported higher birth weights for baby boys and one found lower birth weights for baby girls (Ghazipura 2017).

Female exposures to oxybenzone and related chemicals have been linked to an increased risk of endometriosis (Kunisue 2012). According to the latest proposed FDA sunscreens monograph, the agency needs further data to determine whether oxybenzone can be considered safe and effective, since: available literature indicat that oxybenzone is absorbed through the skin to a greater extent than previously understood and can lead to significant systemic exposure.

The significant systemic availability of oxybenzone is a concern, among other reasons, because of questions raised in the published literature regarding the potential for endocrine activity. Four studies published in 2020, after the FDA released its draft proposal, support previous findings that oxybenzone can act as an endocrine disruptor and may increase the risk of breast cancer and endometriosis (Kariagina 2020, Peinado 2020, Rooney 2020, Santamaria 2020).

  1. In addition, the National Toxicology Program found equivocal evidence of carcinogenicity in rats after observing increases in thyroid tumors and uterine hyperplasia in females with high exposure to oxybenzone (NTP 2020).
  2. Investigators at the University of California at Berkeley reported a dramatic drop in teen girls’ exposure to oxybenzone in cosmetics when they switched from their usual products to replacements that did not contain this chemical (Harley 2016).

Recently, the European Commission found current human exposure levels to oxybenzone to be unsafe and proposed a concentration restriction of 2.2 percent (SCCS 2020) – lower than the limited amount allowed in U.S. sunscreens, which is up to 6 percent. Several countries ban the sale of sunscreens that contain this ingredient, because it may be harmful to aquatic life.

EWG recommends that consumers avoid sunscreens with oxybenzone. Octinoxate (Octyl methoxycinnamate) Octinoxate is an organic UV filter. It is readily absorbed into the skin and continues to be absorbed after the sunscreen has been applied. It has been found in blood 16 times above the proposed FDA safety threshold (Matta 2019, 2020).

Animal studies have shown the chemical has hormone effects on the metabolic system and affects thyroid hormone production (Seidlova-Wuttke 2006), with some evidence for other endocrine targets, including androgen and progesterone signaling (Krause 2012).

Octinoxate can also cause allergic reactions after exposure to ultraviolet light (Rodriguez 2006). Several countries ban the sale of sunscreens made with octinoxate, because they may be harmful to aquatic life. Homosalate Homosalate is an organic UV filter widely used in U.S. sunscreens. The FDA has proposed that there is insufficient data to evaluate whether it is safe and effective to use in sunscreens.

Homosalate has been found to penetrate the skin, disrupt hormones and produce toxic breakdown byproducts over time (Krause 2012, Sarveiya 2004, SCCNFP 2006, Matta 2020). A recent opinion from the European Commission found that homosalate was not safe to use at concentrations up to 10 percent and recommended a maximum concentration of 1.4 percent, because of concerns for potential endocrine disruption (SCCS 2020).

  1. The FDA allows U.S.
  2. Sunscreen manufacturers to use it in concentrations up to 15 percent.
  3. Octisalate Octisalate, an organic UV filter, readily absorbs through the skin at levels 10 times more than 0.5 nanograms per milliter, the FDA’s cutoff for systemic exposure.
  4. This cutoff is the maximum concentration that may be found in blood before there are potential safety concerns.
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The FDA has requested additional safety testing when a sunscreen is absorbed above this level (Walters 1997, Matta 2020). The FDA 2019 proposed update suggests there is insufficient data to determine whether octisalate can be classified as safe and effective to use in sunscreens (FDA 2019).

  1. A case report showed that the chemical has been linked to allergic contact dermatitis (Singh 2007).
  2. Analysis of high throughput screening assays by the Environmental Protection Agency suggests octisalate may have endocrine effects, weakly binding to the estrogen receptor.
  3. Octocrylene Octocrylene readily absorbs through the skin at levels about 14 times the FDA cutoff for systemic exposure (Hayden 2005, Matta 2020), but the agency suggested there is insufficient data to determine whether it can be classified as safe and effective (FDA 2019).

Studies have found that octocrylene causes relatively high rates of skin allergies (Bryden 2006). It has been linked to aquatic toxicity, with the potential to harm coral health (Stein 2019), and it is often contaminated with the known carcinogen benzophenone.

  • According to a recent study, its levels can increase when it is stored (Downs 2021).
  • The European Commission recently concluded that although there was some evidence of octocrylene’s endocrine-disrupting potential, current use concentrations up to 10 percent were considered safe.
  • Avobenzone Avobenzone is a widely used organic filter that provides protection from UVA rays and is often used with other organic active ingredients in products offering broad spectrum protection.

Because avobenzone is not stabile, it must be paired with other ingredients that act as stabilizers to prevent it from breaking down in the sun. Breakdown products of avobenzone can cause allergic reactions (Nash 2014). Avobenzone can disrupt the endocrine system and has been shown to block the effects of testosterone in cellular studies (Klopcic 2017).

In one study, avobenzone was detected in serum samples at levels nine times above the FDA’s cutoff for systemic exposure (Matta 2020). Titanium dioxide and zinc oxide Mineral sunscreens are made with titanium dioxide and zinc oxide, usually in the form of nanoparticles. The FDA proposed that both titanium dioxide and zinc oxide be classified as safe and effective.

Evidence suggests that few if any zinc or titanium particles penetrate the skin to reach living tissues (Gulson, 2012, Sadrieh 2010). Titanium dioxide is classified as a possible human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer, because of the potential of exposure through inhalation.

For this reason, powdered or spray formulations containing titanium dioxide are of concern. Zinc oxide also carries inhalation concerns when used in spray and powder products In general, mineral sunscreens tend to rate better than chemical sunscreens in the EWG sunscreen database. However, it is important that manufacturers use forms of minerals coated with inert chemicals to reduce photoactivity.

To minimize the risks to sunscreen users and maximize these products’ sun protection, EWG supports stronger guidelines and restrictions on the types of used zinc and titanium in sunscreens. Our detailed analysis of nanoparticles in sunscreens is available,

  • Other active ingredients Mexoryl SX, an uncommon active ingredient in U.S.
  • Sunscreen, offers strong UVA protection.
  • The FDA’s analysis indicated there was insufficient data to classify the ingredient as safe and effective.
  • Public research provides no evidence of hormone disruption and rare incidence of skin allergy.

Aminobenzoic acid, or PABA, and trolamine salicylate are active ingredients that are no longer commonly used in U.S. sunscreens. The FDA’s 2019 proposal concluded that the risks of these chemicals outweigh their benefits and proposed classifying them as unsafe.

Inactive ingredients The FDA should look closely at the so-called inactive ingredients in sunscreens, which typically make up half to 70 percent of a sunscreen. EWG recommends the FDA launch a thorough investigation of the safety of all sunscreen ingredients to ensure that none of them damages skin or causes other health harms.

: The trouble with ingredients in sunscreens | EWG’s Guide to Sunscreens

Is zinc oxide better than iron oxide sunscreen?

What do you know about Iron Oxides and Sunscreen SPF? Are Iron Oxides Safe In Cosmetics Recently Dr. Barankin asked me a question regarding iron oxides in sunscreens. I have to admit I had never really thought about that particular ingredient. This week, while being my usual skin geeky self, I came across a recent study about iron oxides. So, of course my curiosity got the best of me and I have to say I was surprised and impressed by what I learned.

In the Journal Of Cosmetic Dermatology November 18, 2020, the results of an in-vitro study showed that sun protection products containing iron oxides provide extra protection against high energy visible light (HEV). Consumer electronics such as your Smartphone or computer emit HEV. Many studies have now proven that HEV contributes to aging skin in multiple forms such as increased wrinkles, skin laxity and pigmentary damage.

The study shows that iron oxides can protect against the HEV light whereas titanium dioxide and zinc oxide give us UVA and UVB protection, but provide a limited protection when it comes to HEV. Even antioxidants that provide protection from free radicals can’t prevent blue light melanogenesis.

Therefore, the addition of iron oxides may protect patients who struggle with melasma or are more prone to hyperpigmentation (especially those with darker skin). Dr. Eric F. Bernstein, M.D. one of the researchers for this study and a highly respected cosmetic dermatologist had this to say: “My entire career has been laser-focused on the use of lasers in medicine and the study of sunlight.

One thing I’ve learned all too well is that sunlight causes a range of problems for our skin including fine lines and wrinkles, enlarged pores, redness, pigmentation, skin sagging and skin cancer. Visible blue light is the most energetic, and therefore the most damaging light, to reach our skin and penetrates more deeply than ultraviolet rays.

I have been interested, for many years, in ways to protect skin against all wavelengths of light. This research is important because it shows that skin care products formulated with iron oxides, combined with mineral sunscreen actives and other ingredients, effectively shield skin against harmful, high-energy, visible wavelengths.” You can read the,

As we continue to find better products to amplify the health of the skin and to protect it against the signs of aging, cancer and pigmentation, and with continued studies being conducted providing concrete results, it is possible to slow down deterioration of the skin and to be able to age gracefully.

Should I avoid zinc oxide sunscreen?

– Found in physical sunscreens Zinc oxide is the second GRASE sunscreen ingredient, allowed in concentrations up to 25 percent, Studies show it’s safe, with no evidence of skin penetration, even after repeated use. In Europe, the ingredient is labeled with a warning because of its toxicity to aquatic life.

Is iron oxide toxic to the body?

* Exposure to Iron Oxide fumes can cause metal fume fever. This is a flu-like illness with symptoms of metallic taste, fever and chills, aches, chest tightness and cough. * While Iron Oxide has been tested, it is not classifiable as to its potential to cause cancer.

Are metal oxides poisonous?

Abstract – In the recent times, nanomaterials are used in many sectors of science, medicine and industry, without revealing its toxic effects. Thus, it is in urgent need for exploring the toxicity along with the application of such useful nanomaterials.

Nanomaterials are categorized with a particle size of 1-100 nm. They have gained increasing attention because of their novel properties, including a large specific surface area and high reaction activity. The various fundamental and practical applications of nanomaterials include drug delivery, cell imaging, and cancer therapy.

Nanosized semiconductors have their versatile applications in different areas such as catalysts, sensors, photoelectronic devices, highly functional and effective devices etc. Metal oxides contribute in many areas of chemistry, physics and materials science.

  • Mechanism of toxicity of metal oxide nanoparticles can occur by different methods like oxidative stress, co-ordination effects, non-homeostasis effects, genotoxicity and others.
  • Factors that affect the metal oxide nanoparticles were size, dissolution and exposure routes.
  • This chapter will explain elaborately the toxicity of metal oxide nano structures in living beings and their effect in ecosystem.

Keywords: Apoptosis; Cell death mechanisms; Genotoxicity; Metal oxide nanoparticles; Nanoparticle toxicity.

Why is iron oxide used in soap?

Black iron oxide is the deepest black. It can be used in cold process to create black soaps, and it can be used in bath bombs to create true black. INCI: Black Iron Oxide Cosmetic use: • Eyes • Lips • Bath Bombs • External Use Ideal for: • Soap • Resin • Crafts • Wax Melts Prop 65: This product is not on the CA Prop 65 list of toxic chemicals.

  • Use rate in cold & hot process soaps:,5-1 teaspoons per pound of oils.
  • Use rate in melt & pour soaps:,25-.5 teaspoons per pound of oils.
  • ~ More or less can be added to achieve your desired color.
  • These usage rates are recommended for no colored lather.
  • ~ Less is more when using black iron oxide! It’s a very strong pigment.

It will not migrate into other colors but will bleed if too much is used. Bleed will cause stained washcloths or cause the color to run down the side of the shower! The greatest benefit of black iron oxide is that it will create a very deep black in soaps and will not migrate into other colors.

The majority of supplies Nurture Soap offers are made in America. Many of our products are made in-house at our factory in Huntington, IN. We require documentation from all of our suppliers ensuring that all products are ethically sourced and no child exploitation is involved. We will not buy from regions (such as India) that are known for utilizing children for labor. We have a large recycling bin on site and we recycle all cardboard, plastic, etc. All UPS shipments are shipped carbon neutral at no extra cost to you.

We care about the impact on our local communities, the earth, and all living creatures. We strive to make as little impact on the environment as possible. All products Nurture Soap sells are cruelty-free and vegan. All products we offer have been thoroughly researched by us.

Is iron oxide just rusted iron?

Rust is the common name for a very common compound, iron oxide. Iron oxide, the chemical Fe2O3, is common because iron combines very readily with oxygen – so readily, in fact, that pure iron is only rarely found in nature.