On the basis of a safety assessment, and considering the concerns related to potential endocrine disrupting properties of BHT, the SCCS is of the opinion that BHT is safe as an ingredient up to a maximum concentration of 0.8% in other leave-on and rinse-off products.
Is BHT absorbed through skin?
Abstract – BHT is the recognized name in the cosmetics industry for butylated hydroxytoluene. BHT is used in a wide range of cosmetic formulations as an antioxidant at concentrations from 0.0002% to 0.5%. BHT does penetrate the skin, but the relatively low amount absorbed remains primarily in the skin.
- Oral studies demonstrate that BHT is metabolized.
- The major metabolites appear as the carboxylic acid of BHT and its glucuronide in urine.
- At acute doses of 0.5 to 1.0 g/kg, some renal and hepatic damage was seen in male rats.
- Short-term repeated exposure to comparable doses produced hepatic toxic effects in male and female rats.
Subchronic feeding and intraperitoneal studies in rats with BHT at lower doses produced increased liver weight, and decreased activity of several hepatic enzymes. In addition to liver and kidney effects, BHT applied to the skin was associated with toxic effects in lung tissue.
BHT was not a reproductive or developmental toxin in animals. BHT has been found to enhance and to inhibit the humoral immune response in animals. BHT itself was not generally considered genotoxic, although it did modify the genotoxicity of other agents. BHT has been associated with hepatocellular and pulmonary adenomas in animals, but was not considered carcinogenic and actually was associated with a decreased incidence of neoplasms.
BHT has been shown to have tumor promotion effects, to be anticarcinogenic, and to have no effect on other carcinogenic agents, depending on the target organ, exposure parameters, the carcinogen, and the animal tested. Various mechanism studies suggested that BHT toxicity is related to an electrophillic metabolite.
- In a predictive clinical test, 100% BHT was a mild irritant and a moderate sensitizer.
- In provocative skin tests, BHT (in the 1% to 2% concentration range) produced positive reactions in a small number of patients.
- Clinical testing did not find any depigmentation associated with dermal exposure to BHT, although a few case reports of depigmentation were found.
The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel recognized that oral exposure to BHT was associated with toxic effects in some studies and was negative in others. BHT applied to the skin, however, appears to remain in the skin or pass through only slowly and does not produce systemic exposures to BHT or its metabolites seen with oral exposures.
What are the benefits of BHT on skin?
Butylated Hydroxytoluene or BHT is a stabiliser that can be found in cosmetic products. It acts as an antioxidant that helps maintain the properties and performance of a product as it is exposed to air (to avoid a change in odor, in color, in texture.). To identify BHT in our products, take a look at the ingredients list on packaging. It can be found under the acronym BHT.
Is butylated hydroxytoluene bad for skin?
What to look for on the label – Endocrine disruption: The European Commission on Endocrine Disruption has determined that there is strong evidence that BHA is a human endocrine disruptor. Organ-system toxicity: Environment Canada Domestic Substance List has classified BHA as a high human health priority.
A study carried out in normal mammalian kidney cells found that exposure to BHA caused specific damage at the cellular level and was found to exert a significant cytotoxic effect even at low doses. The Environment Canada Domestic Substance List has classified BHT as expected to be toxic or harmful. A safety assessment of BHT reported that BHT applied to the skin of rats was associated with toxic effects in lung tissue, but judged that the low concentrations used in cosmetics were safe.
Developmental and reproductive toxicity: Studies carried out in rats found that exposure to high doses of BHA resulted in weak dysfunction and underdevelopment of the reproductive systems of both male and female rats. Changes in testosterone levels, sex weight organs and sexual maturation were also observed.
Cancer: The National Toxicology Program (NTP) Report on Carcinogens, 12th Edition, reports that BHA is reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity from animal studies. The California EPA’s Proposition 65 list also identifies BHA as a possible human carcinogen and requires labeling for products that are used on the lips, while the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) determined that there was only limited evidence of carcinogenicity for products used on the lips.
One study found that dietary exposure to BHA caused both benign and malignant tumors in the stomachs of rats, mice and hamsters. However another study determined that typical dietary levels of BHA did not result in an increase in incidence of stomach cancer.
Is butylated hydroxytoluene good for face?
By Jasmin Cordy March 15, 2017 Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) is commonly used in cosmetic formulations as an antioxidant. In addition to personal care products and makeup, it is also widely used in plastics and foods. BHT (or 2,6-di- tert -butyl- p -cresol) is a white to yellowish crystalline solid that prevents the oxidation of fats and oils, and helps to extend a product’s shelf-life. Figure 1: Molecular structure of BHT. Consumers seek safe, natural ingredients for skin, hair, body, and food products. Nowadays, more consumers read and research the information found on packaging labels including ingredient listings. There has been increased concern and caution amongst consumers with the use of synthetic additives in foods and cosmetics.
- BHT has been questioned for safety and efficacy due to consumers’ skepticism of additives of synthetic origin.
- In fact, a major manufacturer of cereals volunteered to remove BHT from its cereals due to negative concerns of consumers.4 Based on toxicological studies it was concluded that BHT may produce toxicity in high oral doses and can cause adverse effects in some organs using animal models.5,6 Although there are some concerns about BHT, scientific research maintains that when used at low concentrations BHT is safe.
Long-term use studies have substantiated the overall safety and efficacy of BHT.7 In skin permeation studies, it was demonstrated that BHT has the ability to penetrate the skin; however, the amount absorbed does not appear to pass through the top layer of the skin, and it has been determined to be safe for use in cosmetics.3 It was also concluded that application of BHT to the skin does not produce appreciable systemic levels of the molecule, and it does not result in widespread irritation, sensitization, or photosensitization.
- In addition to its antioxidant protection of cosmetic preparations, BHT provides positive benefits for the skin.
- In one study, it was shown that BHT may have photoprotective properties and possibly impede photocarcinogenesis when used in conjunction with carotenoids, such as beta-carotene.8 Although BHT is still widely used, some companies are searching for alternatives with good toxicological and ecological profiles.
Some possible alternatives are BHT analogues that offer strong stabilizer benefits, such as tocopherols and synthetic analogues.9 Another option is to promote BHT as a naturally sourced antioxidant. It has been shown that BHT can be produced in freshwater aquatic plants, such as phytoplankton.10 BHT has been in use for a long time in consumer products.
- Its safety profile has led to its inclusion in many products resulting in extensive use.
- Scientific data supports the safety of BHT for the consumer.
- BHT is a mainstay of the cosmetics and food industry and is beneficial for the safe preservation of cosmetics, such as cleansers, lotions, make-up, and hairstyling products.
Further research could discover even more beneficial uses of BHT. References 1.H. Fiege, H.-W. Voges, T. Hamamoto, S. Umemura, T. Iwata, H. Miki, Y. Fujita, H.-J. Buysch, D. Garbe, and W. Paulus, “Phenol Derivatives” in Ullmann’s Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, Wiley-VCH: Weinheim, Germany (2002); doi:10.1002/14356007.a19_313.2.U.S.
Food & Drug Administration, Select Committee on GRAS Substances (SCOGS) Opinion: Butylated Hydroxytoluene (BHT),3.R.S. Lanigan and T.A. Yamarik, Final report on the safety assessment of BHT, Int.J. Toxicol., 21 Suppl 2, 19-94 (2002).4. General Mills, BHT statement, February 5, 2015.5.H. Verhagen, H.H.
Beckers, P.A. Comuth, L.M. Maas, F. ten Hoor, P.T. Henderson, and J.C. Kleinjans, Disposition of single oral doses of butylated hydroxytoluene in man and rat, Food Chem. Toxicol., 27, 765-772 (1989).6.C.J. Powell, J.C. Connelly, S.M. Jones, P. Grasso, and J.W.
Bridges, Hepatic responses to the administration of high doses of BHT to the rat: their relevance to hepatocarcinogenicity, Food Chem. Toxicol., 24, 1131-1143 (1986).7.G.M. Williams, M.J. Iatropoulos, and J. Whysner, Safety assessment of butylated hydroxyanisole and butylated hydroxytoluene as antioxidant food additives, Food Chem.
Toxicol., 37, 1027-1038 (1999).8.H.S. Black and M.M. Mathews-Roth, Protective role of butylated hydroxytoluene and certain carotenoids in photocarcinogenesis, Photochem. Photobiol., 53, 707-716 ( 1991).9.W.A. Yehye, N. Abdul Rahman, A.A. Alhadi, H. Khaledi, N.S.
What are the negatives of BHT?
Health and Environmental Hazards – BHA and BHT can induce allergic reactions in the skin, The International Agency for Research on Cancer classifies BHA as a possible human carcinogen, The European Commission on Endocrine Disruption has also listed BHA as a Category 1 priority substance, based on evidence that it interferes with hormone function,
- Long-term exposure to high doses of BHT is toxic in mice and rats, causing liver, thyroid and kidney problems and affecting lung function and blood coagulation,
- BHT can act as a tumour promoter in certain situations,
- Limited evidence suggests that high doses of BHT may mimic estrogen, the primary female sex hormone, and prevent expression of male sex hormones, resulting in adverse reproductive affects.
Under the Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the North-East Atlantic, BHA is listed as a chemical of potential concern, noting its toxicity to aquatic organisms and potential to bioaccumulate, Likewise, a United Nations Environment Program assessment noted that BHT had a moderate to high potential for bioaccumulation in aquatic species (though the assessment deemed BHT safe for humans),
Is BHT banned in some countries?
Several Breakfast Cereals – Popular breakfast cereals including Frosted Flakes, Honey Bunches of Oats and Rice Krispies contain BHT. Used as a flavor enhancer, BHT has long been studied for its potential carcinogenic properties. While, BHT is banned in Japan and the European Union. Other cereals, such as Lucky Charms, use Yellow 5, Yellow 6 and Red 40, despite being for some.
What is BHT and why is it banned?
Butylated Hydroxyanisole (BHA) and Butylated Hydroxytoluene (BHT) prevent oils in food from oxidizing, and are therefore used as preservatives. BHA is considered a human carcinogen and both BHA and BHT can promote tumor growth and impair blood clotting.
Why is BHT banned in Canada?
BHA and BHT – Sheli Jensen/Shutterstock Butylated Hydroxytoluene (BHT) and the related Butylated Hydroxyanisole (BHA) are preservatives that keep food and other perishable products fresh. Often used in breakfast cereals, The classifies BHA as a possible human carcinogen.
Is BHT FDA approved?
PART 172 – FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Subpart B – Food Preservatives Sec.172.115 BHT. The food additive BHT (butylated hydroxytoluene), alone or in combination with other antioxidants permitted in this subpart B may be safely used in or on specified foods, as follows: (a) The BHT meets the following specification: Assay (total BHT) 99 percent minimum.
|Food||Limitations (total BHA and BHT) parts per million|
|Dehydrated potato shreds||50|
|Dry breakfast cereals||50|
|Emulsion stabilizers for shortenings||200|
c) To assure safe use of the additive: (1) The label of any market package of the additive shall bear, in addition to the other information required by the Act, the name of the additive. (2) When the additive is marketed in a suitable carrier, in addition to meeting the requirement of paragraph (c)(1) of this section, the label shall declare the percentage of the additive in the mixture.
Are BHA and BHT banned in other countries?
You might assume that whatever happens to be in the food that you buy at the grocery store is safe to eat, but as it turns out, a closer look at the ingredients in your groceries might reveal some unpleasant surprises. There are some ingredients that are currently used in commercial foods in the United States but have been banned in other countries for various reasons. Michael D Edwards/Shutterstock Brominated vegetable oil (BVO) “is a common additive in citrus soda, such as Mountain Dew,” Berger says. Indeed, BVO is “sometimes used to keep citrus flavoring from separating out in sodas and other beverages,” according to the Mayo Clinic, Sign up for our newsletter! Shutterstock If you were around and snacking back in the ’90s, then you might have heard that certain items such as “diet” versions of Pringles, Ruffles, and Doritos were linked to various unfortunate health issues like cramping, diarrhea, and “loose bowel movements,” or what was deemed at the time “fecal urgency” and “anal leakage,” according to Mental Floss, Shutterstock An additive that’s used for baking, potassium bromate is something that you might find in your bread, A review found in the scientific journal Food Chemistry further explains that it’s “an oxidizing agent and one of the best and cheapest dough improvers in the baking industry.” It’s also an additive that has been found to cause cancer in rodents.
According to the data published by the journal Environmental Health Perspectives, potassium bromate “is carcinogenic in rats and nephrotoxic in both man and experimental animals when given orally.” Although potassium bromate is still used in the United States, Almasar notes that it is banned in Canada, the European Union, and China.
Live Science points out that it’s also not used in Brazil as well as other countries. Shutterstock While butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) have complicated names, they’re simply synthetic antioxidants used as food preservatives. BHA is found in processed foods and drinks like meat, cereal, chips, butter, and beer, and BHT is used in meat and snacks as well as gum, things that are baked, and dehydrated foods, per Verywell Fit,
- Although both BHA and BHT are widely used in the United States, they’ve been known to cause allergic reactions,
- BHA also ” interferes with hormone function,” while BHT is toxic to rodents, “can act as a tumor promoter in certain situations,” and has “result in adverse reproductive ffects.” Understandably, both are banned in Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and Japan, as well as Europe, according to Livestrong,
Fortunately for those in the United States who might be concerned about consuming food that contains BHA or BHT, Almasar says that both are “considered safe for use in food when the total antioxidant content is less than 0.02.” Shutterstock There are a wide variety of dyes used to make our food more colorful and more enticing. However, while the United States allows dyes such as Yellow No.6 and Red No.40 to be used in products that might find their way onto your dinner table, Berger says many Europeans countries do not allow this artificial coloring in their food.
What is the difference between BHA and BHT?
BHA is an oil-soluble waxy solid with the E number E320, and BHT is an oil-soluble white powder with the E number E321. Fatty or oily foods treated with BHA and BHT taste better for longer, due to their chain-breaking antioxidants that quench free radicals.
What is an alternative to BHT?
5. Rosemary Extract – Rosemary can be used as an alternative to BHA and BHT, preservatives which are likely carcinogenic. BHA and BHT are used to prevent oils in foods from oxidizing and becoming rancid. Rosemary extract serves the same purpose in foods like potato chips, meats, and vegetable oils, but without the health risks.
What is the usage level of BHT in cosmetics?
BHT is used between 0.0002 and 0.8% as an antioxidant in wide spectrum of dermally applied or sprayable cosmetic product types.
Is Butylated hydroxytoluene natural?
Abstract – Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) is one of the synthetic antioxidant agents commonly used for food additives. In the present study, we determined that four freshwater phytoplankton, including a green alga (Botryococcus braunii Kütz.) and three cyanobacteria were capable of producing this compound.
- Hexane extracts from all the studied species exhibited various degrees of antioxidative properties when they were tested with the β-carotene-linoleate (β-CL) assay and the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free-radical-scavenging assay.
- The highest antioxidant activity was observed in the crude extracts of M.
aeruginosa and B. braunii, which displayed a similar activity to synthetic BHT. Gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) analysis of the purified fractions revealed that the active compound was identical to synthetic BHT. Culturing under various irradiances gave rise to different magnitudes of BHT production in cyanobacterial cells, showing that more BHT was produced in the cells irradiated with a higher light intensity, and its production was irradiance dependent.
- Moreover, the quantity of cellular BHT displayed a positive correlation with the antioxidative activity of the tested species.
- The present study confirms the production of BHT in all four of the studied freshwater phytoplankton and suggests that these species constitute a potential source for producing natural BHT.
Keywords: butylated hydroxytoluene; cyanobacteria; green alga; irradiance; natural antioxidant. © 2008 Phycological Society of America.
Is Butylated hydroxytoluene organic?
Butylated Hydroxytoluene is an organic chemical composed of 4-methylphenol modified with tert-butyl groups at positions 2 and 6.
Is BHT banned in the USA?
11 Banned Food Ingredients Still Allowed in the U.S. 1 of 13 Do you read nutrition labels? If so, what do you look for? Some of us concentrate on fat grams, calories, carbs, protein, sugar and sodium and while this information is definitely impactful for controlling our health and weight, there are additional items we may want to be watching out for in our foods. 2 of 13 1. BHA (Butylated Hydroxyanisole) and BHT (Butylated Hydroxytoluene) Many chips, sausages and cereals contain butylated hydroxyanisole and butylated hydroxytoluene in their ingredient lists. The waxy substances act as preservatives, keeping foods from becoming rancid.
While BHA and BHT have been “generally recognized as safe” by the U.S. FDA, they remain controversial. Both substances may have some disease-fighting properties, but they’ve also been shown to raise cancer risks in animal tests, according to the U.S. National Toxicology Program. Both BHA and BHT are banned from foods in Australia, Canada, New Zealand, Japan and throughout Europe.
Read more : 3 of 13 In the U.S., it’s also used to enhance texture of soft white breads, including hamburger buns at McDonald’s and Burger King. Azodicarbonamide is banned in Australia, the U.K. and European countries. What’s more, if you add azodicarbonamide to food in Singapore, you could face up to 15 years in prison and a nearly $500,000 fine. 4 of 13 3. Recombinant Bovine Growth Hormone and Recombinant Bovine Somatropin To increase milk production in cows, many U.S. dairy farmers have turned to recombinant bovine growth hormone (rBGH) and recombinant bovine somatropin (rBST). The use of these synthetic hormones is not permitted in the European Union, Canada, and some other countries, due to human and animal health risks. 5 of 13 This bread additive strengthens dough, reducing its baking time and saving manufacturers money by lowering production costs. Also called bromated flour, it is believed to disappear from foods during baking and therefore trace amounts are considered safe in U.S.
Foods. has been banned in the EU, Canada, Peru, Nigeria, Brazil, South Korea and China. Researchers in Japan published a study showing that potassium bromate causes cancer in the thyroids, kidneys and other body parts of rats and mice. The U.S. FDA hasn’t banned potassium bromate, but it does advise moderate use only and proper labeling.
Many small and large bakeries in the U.S. voluntarily avoid using potassium bromate, however, it’s still found in many fast food buns and other products. Read more : 6 of 13 Olestra made its way into fat-free foods, including chips, crackers and fries in the U.S. in the late 1990s. Soon after, it was found to, namely gas, cramps and anal leakage—another term for uncontrollable diarrhea. What’s more (in case you need more reasons to avoid it!), Olestra was also found to reduce the body’s ability to absorb essential nutrients. 7 of 13 6. Genetically Modified (GM) Canola Oil In Europe, farmers cannot legally grow genetically modified canola crops. (Canola plants were developed through conventional plant breeding from rapeseed, and organic versions can be found of the oil.) According to NPR, as of 2010, roughly 90% of canola plants in the U.S.
- Are genetically modified varieties (GMO) that can resist two types of herbicides, glufosinate and glyphosate.
- According to Dr.
- Andrew Weil, this means “canola oil producers use a lot of pesticides on their crops.” Weil suspects that residues find their way into the finished product and recommends choosing organic or non-GMO, expeller-pressed brands of,
He writes, “The lower-cost products sold in supermarkets have often been extracted with chemical solvents or high-speed presses that generate heat. Both methods alter the oil’s fatty acid chemistry in undesirable ways.” 8 of 13 7. Genetically Modified (GM) Corn Ninety percent of the corn grown in the U.S. is genetically modified (GM). Countries including France, Greece and Algeria don’t allow genetically modified corn to be sold. “The tricky part about avoiding GMOs is that, even though the vast majority of Americans are in favor of labeling GMOs, manufacturers are currently not required to do so,” said Jon McGoran, magazine editor and urban agriculture advocate in Pennsylvania.
A June 2013 published in the Organic Systems Journal found that pigs fed a combination of GM soy and corn suffer more frequent severe stomach inflammation and enlargement of the uterus than those who eat a non-GM diet. To avoid these risks, try purchasing corn from your local farmers’ market, and when buying processed foods opt for certified organic.
Read more : 9 of 13 8. Genetically Modified (GM) Soybeans While genetically modified soybeans are banned in Austria, Hungary, Greece, Bulgaria, and Luxembourg, more than 90% of soybeans grown in the U.S. are genetically modified. Even if you never eat edamame or tofu, soybeans and soy derivatives are found in countless common (and surprising) foods, including energy bars, butter substitutes, breads, crackers, deli meats, meat substitutes, vegetable oils and salad dressings. 10 of 13 Though it’s been banned in Austria, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Spain, Sweden, and Switzerland, this is often found in U.S. ice cream, cereals, canned processed peas, packet soups, bottled food colorings, icings, and in the liquor blue curacao.
Research has connected Blue No.1, which is also called Brilliant Blue with allergies, hyperactivity, learning problems, aggressiveness and irritability in children. To ban it from your kitchen, keep an eye on ingredient lists. If you see Blue No.1, move on.11 of 13 Also called tartrazine, is a food colorant banned in Finland and Norway and available widely in the U.S.
“Six of the 11 studies on Yellow Number 5 showed that it caused genotoxicity, a deterioration of the cell’s genetic material with the potential to mutate healthy DNA,” say Jayson and Mira Calton, authors of “Rich Food, Poor Food.” These effects can have serious complications, such as causing growth abnormalities.
- In research published in in 2010, tartrazine was administered to organ tissue in male rats.
- The researchers found that the artificial dye negatively affects markers of disease in vital organs, such as kidneys and livers – at low and high doses.
- Common sources include cheese-flavored crackers and chips, colorful cereals, butterscotch pudding, yellow sports drinks macaroni and cheese mixes.
Read more : 12 of 13 Also called Sunset Yellow, Yellow No.6, is the third most widely used food coloring in the U.S. found in Fruity Cheerios, Trix, some Eggo waffle products, and some Kraft macaroni and cheese dinners. While it enhances the color of many American cheeses, cheese-flavored pasta mixes, candy, cereals and carbonated drinks, it may also contribute to some serious health problems.
- Finland and Norway banned Yellow No.6 after lab studies showed a link between the additive and tumors in the adrenal glands and kidneys of animals.
- To avoid these risks, look for foods free of artificial additives.
- Foods and drinks colored with tumeric, a natural spice with anti-inflammatory properties, are a safer bet.
Related: 13 of 13 Are you surprised about this list of ingredients allowed in foods in the U.S.? Were you aware of all these and their risks? Do you know of any other ingredients that people should be careful about consuming? Let us know by leaving a comment below.
Is BHA carcinogenic?
Butylated Hydroxyanisole (BHA) can cause cancer in animals. It may also affect the way hormones act in the body.
Is butylated hydroxytoluene safe?
BUTYLATED HYDROXYTOLUENE (BHT): Overview, Uses, Side Effects, Precautions, Interactions, Dosing and Reviews BHT (butylated hydroxytoluene) is a lab-made chemical that is added to foods as a preservative. People also use it as medicine. BHT is used to treat genital herpes and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
caused by a type of virus called herpes. Developing evidence suggests that putting BHT on cold sores may help them heal faster. Genital herpes. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Other conditions.
More evidence is needed to rate the effectiveness of BHT for these uses. BHT is safe in the amounts found in processed foods. But there isn’t enough information to know if it is safe to take BHT in medicinal doses, which are typically higher. There also isn’t enough information to know whether BHT can be safely used on the,
BHT is safe in the amounts found in processed foods. But there isn’t enough information to know if it is safe to take BHT in medicinal doses, which are typically higher. There also isn’t enough information to know whether BHT can be safely used on the, Pregnancy and -feeding : BHT is safe when eaten as food, but there’s not enough information to know if it’s safe in the larger amounts that are used as medicine.
If you are pregnant or breast-feeding, stick with food amounts until more is known. We currently have no information for BUTYLATED HYDROXYTOLUENE (BHT) overview, The appropriate dose of BHT depends on several factors such as the user’s age, health, and several other conditions.
At this time there is not enough scientific information to determine an appropriate range of doses for BHT. Keep in mind that natural products are not always necessarily safe and dosages can be important. Be sure to follow relevant directions on product labels and consult your or physician or other professional before using.
REFERENCES: Botterweck AA, Verhagen H, Goldbohm RA, et al. Intake of butylated hydroxyanisole and butylated hydroxytoluene and stomach cancer risk: results from analyses in the Netherlands Cohort Study. Food Chem Toxicol 2000;38:599-605. View abstract.
- Coohill TP, Babich M, Taylor WD, Snipes W.
- A comparison of herpes simplex virus plaque development after viral treatment with anti-DNA or antilipid agents.
- Biophys J 1980;30:517-21.
- View abstract.
- Electronic Code of Federal Regulations. Title 21.
- Part 182 – Substances Generally Recognized As Safe.
- Available at: https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfcfr/CFRSearch.cfm?CFRPart=182 Freeman DJ, Wenerstrom G, Spruance SL.
Treatment of recurrent herpes simplex labialis with topical butylated hydroxytoluene. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1985;38:56-9. View abstract. Grogan MW. Toxicity from BHT ingestion. West J Med 1986;145:245-6. Reimund E. Butylated hydroxytoluene, lipid-enveloped viruses, and AIDS.
- Med Hypotheses 1987;23:39-42.
- View abstract.
- Shlian DM, Goldstone J.
- More on BHT toxicity.
- West J Med 1986;145:699.
- Shlian DM, Goldstone J.
- Toxicity of butylated hydroxytoluene.
- N Engl J Med 1986;314:648-9.
- Williams GM, Iatropoulos MJ, Whysner J.
- Safety assessment of butylated hydroxyanisole and butylated hydroxytoluene as antioxidant food additives.
Food Chem Toxicol 1999;37:1027-38. View abstract. CONDITIONS OF USE AND IMPORTANT INFORMATION: This information is meant to supplement, not replace advice from your doctor or healthcare provider and is not meant to cover all possible uses, precautions, interactions or adverse effects.
This information may not fit your specific health circumstances. Never delay or disregard seeking professional medical advice from your doctor or other qualified health care provider because of something you have read on WebMD. You should always speak with your doctor or health care professional before you start, stop, or change any prescribed part of your health care plan or treatment and to determine what course of therapy is right for you.
This copyrighted material is provided by Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Consumer Version. Information from this source is evidence-based and objective, and without commercial influence. For professional medical information on natural medicines, see Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Professional Version.
Why is BHT banned in Europe?
Pillsbury Pie Crust – Pillsbury brings the convenience of a ready-made pie crust to kitchens across the country. However, this product is banned in the United Kingdom, Japan, and parts of Europe because it contains both BHA and BHT. The substances are suspected to be carcinogenic and have been linked to impaired blood clotting. Internet Archive Book Images // Flickr
Why are Ritz banned in Europe?
Betty Crocker Fudge Brownie Mix – Baking brownies couldn’t be easier with this popular mix. However, a closer look at the ingredients reveals the product still contains trans fats in the form of partially hydrogenated soybean and/or cottonseed oil. Trans fats were recently banned in the U.S.
Why do companies use BHT?
What Are BHA and BHT? – Food manufacturers add butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) to foods like cereal and other dry goods to help the fats in these products stay fresher longer. Both BHA and BHT are antioxidants, which means they can provide some protection from the damaging effects of oxygen exposure.
In a way, BHA and BHT are similar to vitamin E, which is also an antioxidant and is often used as a preservative as well. Processed foods like potato flakes and dry breakfast cereals are usually packaged in air-proof packaging filled with something inert and harmless like nitrogen gas. But once you open the package, the contents are exposed to oxygen in the air.
The fats in processed foods react to the oxygen and go rancid. Foods with rancid fats taste bad and while a little rancid fat won’t hurt you, it’s probably not something you’d want to eat frequently.
What ingredients penetrate skin?
How Does the Skin Absorb Skincare Products? – When talking about skincare products, it’s important to note that skin is not a sponge. “Most topical skincare products work on the skin’s surface,” says Ron Robinson, CEO and cosmetic chemist at BeautyStat,
- Most products don’t even make it to the dermis, which contains the blood supply.” If you’re wondering why your skincare feels like it’s absorbing, that sinking-in sensation you feel after applying skincare is just air-drying in action.
- According to derms, the majority of ingredients start evaporating into thin air as soon as they’re applied.
While “absorption” means that something has made its way into the bloodstream, skincare “penetration” means an ingredient has made its way through the stratum corneum into the deeper layers of the skin. “When it comes to skincare, penetration is the goal so that the active ingredients can work to hydrate and fortify the skin while remaining in the targeted skin layer for maximum efficacy,” says Kitsos.
However, this gets tricky because of your stratum corneum. The shield of fatty acids, sebum, and ceramides is also water-repellent, which is why you can take a bath without turning into a water balloon. The problem is that skincare consists of a lot of water because it’s the most effective way to dissolve and dilute active ingredients.
Enter penetration enhancers, which are ingredients like certain alcohols or fatty acids (such as linoleic and oleic acid) that enhance the chances of another ingredient’s penetrability. Think of it like bringing a friend to a party where they’re not invited.
- These ingredients penetrate the skin and decrease the skin’s innate barrier resistance.
- In doing so, they allow other ingredients to enter along with them,” says Kisos.
- Penetration enhancers are frequently used in transdermal medications, but they have also become widespread in cosmetics and skincare products.” There are other factors that can impact this penetrative process as well.
With serums, they’re “very liquidy and can easily penetrate the skin delivering the ingredient efficiently, compared to thick creams or moisturizers,” explains Shuting Hu, PhD, a cosmetic chemist and founder of Acaderma, “On the other hand, creams will sit on top of the epidermis for longer as they likely include an occlusive ingredient, like petrolatum or waxes.” Molecular size also factors in.
Ingredients such as vitamin C, vitamin E, and hyaluronic acid can easily penetrate the epidermis since they have smaller molecular structures. But some ingredients have larger molecular structures, which means they can’t penetrate the skin and will end up sitting on the surface of the skin,” says Hu.
A common example is oils, silicones, and wax-based elixirs. That’s not to say that these non-penetrative ingredients aren’t beneficial—they can seal the skin and give a hydrating effect, improving your outer skin texture. Here’s where things get a bit dicey.
There are some beauty ingredients that manage to infiltrate both the circulatory and lymphatic systems. To achieve this feat, molecules need to be ultra-small, and have both hydrophilic (water) and hydrophobic (oil) components that increase their solubility, says Dr. Sheilagh Maguiness, MD, board-certified dermatologist and co-founder of Stryke Club.
Retinol is an example of a bloodstream-entering ingredient (it’s listed on California’s Prop 65 for potential “reproductive toxicity” for this reason), which is why pregnant women should avoid using it entirely. Certain ingredients in chemical sunscreens, such as avobenzone and oxybenzone, have also been found to absorb directly into the bloodstream—as well as chemical molecules like parabens and phthalates that mimic hormones and are distributed throughout the body.
Is benzyl alcohol good for your skin?
Benzyl Alcohol Is Super Common in Skincare—But Is It Safe? The easiest way to get a debate going in the beauty community is by bringing up the topic of preservatives—and are at the forefront of that discussion. Some believe them to be toxic endocrine disruptors, while others say not enough research exists to support those claims.
In an attempt to avoid the issue completely, many beauty companies are reformulating without the use of parabens in favor of alternative ingredients. And in the wake of those changes, consumers are left to wonder about the safety of the other ingredients being used instead, like benzyl alcohol, and whether or not preservatives are all that important in the first place.
So what’s the deal? Dermatologist Jessica Krant, MD, says that preservatives do have an important role and deserve a place in your skincare products. “Preservatives are vital for any product that we want to last more than a few days in the bottle—and not have to keep in the refrigerator,” she explains.
“They help to keep germs out and to keep the products from turning rancid or discolored.” But because some might still be on the fence about using preservatives, we turned to Krant as well as two other experts for their opinions on one of the more common paraben alternatives. Here’s what these experts have to say about the specific ingredient benzyl alcohol and whether or not you’re safe to use it in your skincare.
Benzyl Alcohol Type of ingredient: Preservative, antioxidant, and solvent Main benefits: Preserves, stabilizes, and dissolves ingredients Who should use it: In general, benzyl alcohol is safe to use by anyone who does not have a true contact allergy to it.
- How often can you use it: Benzyl alcohol is safe to use daily if you’re not sensitive to it and if it’s used at a low concentration.
- Works well with: Benzyl alcohol works well with most, if not all, other ingredients.
- Don’t use with: Benzyl alcohol works well with most, if not all, other ingredients.
Although it’s most widely known as benzyl alcohol, the aromatic alcohol also goes by a few other names, such as benzene methanol or phenylcarbinol. It’s derived from fruit (usually cranberries and apricots, says Yadav), comes in the form of a colorless liquid, and has a slightly sweet scent.
As a multifunctional ingredient, you can spot benzyl alcohol on the ingredient label of many different skincare, cosmetic, and personal products, such as moisturizers, lip balms, face washes, and even makeup. According to Wong, it’s primarily used in product formulation as a preservative to stop microorganisms from overgrowing in products, which could later lead to an infection.
“It’s mostly used because of the scaremongering about parabens,” Wong says. “Since a lot of consumers are worried about parabens, alternative preservatives have to be used for marketing reasons. It’s found naturally, so companies can use it in products and still market them as ‘natural.'” Besides possibly having antioxidant effects in certain formulas, benzyl alcohol doesn’t have any specific benefits for your skin itself, but rather helps to optimize skincare formulas so that they can better perform for your skin.
- Preserves the product: According to Yadav, benzyl alcohol acts as a preservative in skincare and cosmetic products due to its antibacterial and anti-fungal properties. “Any cosmetic or personal care product that is made with no preservatives (for example, preservative-free eye drops) generally comes in individual single-use containers to prevent contamination by contact or air,” Krant says. Benzyl alcohol allows products to be bottled in larger packages designed for more than one use.
- Stabilizes the formula: Krant adds that the ingredient also acts as a stabilizing agent against the oxidative breakdown of the product, which means it allows your products to work more effectively for a longer period.
- Has antioxidant activity: Krant says benzyl alcohol also has antioxidant properties, and antioxidants protect against free-radical damage.
- Dissolves ingredients: Benzyl alcohol acts as a solvent and helps to dissolve other ingredients in a product’s formula.
- Decreases viscosity: Benzyl alcohol also decreases viscosity, which allows products to flow more easily.
- Imparts a nice scent: As an aromatic alcohol, benzyl alcohol is naturally fragrant and gives off a slightly sweet scent. Yadav says it’s also naturally found in some essential oils, including ylang-ylang and jasmine, and has a delicate floral scent.
“Benzyl alcohol is considered to be a safe ingredient in skincare and cosmetics when used on intact skin,” Krant says. With that said, you might have seen benzyl alcohol on a list of “bad” alcohols once or twice before.
- Can cause itching for some people: “As is the case for most preservatives, benzyl alcohol can, unfortunately, be an irritant and cause itching for some people,” says Krant.
- Toxicity is possible with overuse: “Toxicity is a possibility with excessive ingestion, which is not considered a risk with normal usage,” says Wong, adding that it’s safe when used at a low concentration—and it usually is in well-formulated products.
However, Yadav points out that only in rare cases is someone actually allergic to benzyl alcohol. If you experience an adverse reaction (such as swelling, or redness) to products containing benzyl alcohol and suspect you could have an allergy to it, Krant says this can be identified through formal skin allergy patch testing with your dermatologist or allergist.
As for more serious risks of using the preservative in your products, those concerns aren’t as valid. “The potential for allergenicity is low, and low risk of toxicity,” Krant says. As long as you don’t have an allergy to benzyl alcohol, Krant and Wong say it’s totally fine to use in your regular skincare routine.
Because the ingredient is included in such a wide range of cosmetics, the time of day you would apply it, as well as the step in your routine, depends on each specific product. FAQ
- What is the difference between benzyl alcohol and isopropyl alcohol? Isopropyl alcohol is responsible for killing bacteria upon contact while benzyl alcohol works to prevent bacteria from entering in the first place.
- Is benzyl alcohol safe to ingest? No. Benzyl alcohol can cause harm when ingested.
- Is benzyl alcohol natural? Benzyl alcohol is considered a natural preservative, but it can also be synthetically made.
Byrdie takes every opportunity to use high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Read our to learn more about how we keep our content accurate, reliable and trustworthy.
- National Center for Biotechnology Information. Updated February 14, 2022.
- Johnson W, Bergfeld WF, Belsito DV, et al., Int J Toxicol,2017;36(3_suppl):5S-30S. doi:10.1177/1091581817728996
- National Center for Biotechnology Information., Updated February 14, 2022.
: Benzyl Alcohol Is Super Common in Skincare—But Is It Safe?
Does BHT affect testosterone?
Risks associated with butylated hydroxytoulene (BHT) – BHT mimics the hormone estrogen and as such, the International Agency for Research on Cancer as well as the National Toxicology Program have classified these substances as possible and/or likely human carcinogens.
Lower testosterone levels Lover thyroxin levels Adversely affect sperm quality Behavioral problems in children
Are chemicals in cosmetics absorbed through the skin?
Dermal Absorption – Dermal absorption happens when a chemical goes through the skin and travels into the body. Many chemicals used in the workplace can damage organs if they penetrate the skin and enter the bloodstream. Examples of these chemicals include pesticides and organic solvents.
- Skin integrity (damaged or intact)
- The place on the skin where the chemicals are absorbed. (This includes features like thickness and water content of stratum corneum and skin temperature.)
- Physical and chemical properties of the chemical
- Concentration of the chemical on the skin surface
- How long the skin absorbs the chemical
- The surface area of skin that absorbs the chemical